Protein and vaccine production is commonly used by the pharmaceutical industry to generate bio-therapeutic products.
Therapeutic proteins are commonly engineered in pharmaceutical laboratories to generate human protein therapeutics. The first protein therapeutic was insulin derived from recombinant DNA in 1982. Bacteria expression systems and mammalian cell lines such as Chinese Hamster Ovarian (CHO) are used to produce therapeutic proteins, antibodies, enzymes or hormones that can be injected into humans or animals to treat diseases.
Virus production to produce vaccine particles to stimulating the immune system is a classic approach. When using vaccines for gene therapy the utilization of the virus is slightly different, it will act as a gene delivery vector, the three most common viruses vectors are:
- Retroviruses (for insertion of DNA; ex-vivo or in-vivo)
- Adenoviruses (for transient expression)
- Lentiviruses (for ex-vivo transient and stable gene expression)
Pharmaceutical companies use one or more bio-therapeutic methods to treat or potentially cure a disease.