Chemotherapy and radiation are common treatments for many cancers.
Cord Blood-derived HSCs – The Quest to Overcome Limited Cell Numbers
Cord Blood-Derived HSCs - The Quest to Overcome Limited Cell NumbersBone marrow and peripheral blood-derived HSCs allow for large numbers of CD34+ cells to be harvested and transplanted, but they are of limited utility if an HLA-matched donor is unavailable. Cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells offer a potential solution, as the cells tend to be more naïve, which may lead to fewer occurrences of host-versus-graft-disease (GVHD) in instances of HLA-mismatch.
There are currently research efforts aimed at exploiting the cell-cell interactions of the bone marrow niche to facilitate ex-vivo expansion of HSCs. Techniques include co-culture of HSCs with bone marrow stromal cells and addition of supporting exogenous cytokines, which has shown a 40-fold increase of CD34+ cells. In addition, there are clinical trials in progress to assess the safety and efficacy of transplantation of ex-vivo co-culture expanded HSCs.
Notch signaling and maintenance of HSC self-renewalNotch signaling and maintenance of HSC self-renewal
These two examples help to illustrate the impressive progress in our collective understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the in-vitro expansion of HSCs. However, there is still more to discover before we can fully realize the potential that stem cell based therapies can provide.
- Regulation of hematopoietic stem cells by bone marrow stromal cells.
- Ex vivo expansion of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
- Concise review: ex vivo expansion of cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells: basic principles, experimental approaches, and impact in regenerative medicine.